American Heritage 100 :: Fall 2006 [/\\] BYU

my student notes and resources from amh 100 at byu. i can make mistakes, so corrections are welcome.

use 'search this blog' above to search through my notes.

as an international student, i don't know much about american heritage either.

Oct 30, 2006

Politics as Usual 
Day 1: Unity vs. Opposition

I. The Birth of Political Parties
A. Federalists vs Democratic Republicans
1. 12th Amendment (1804) recognizes parties
B. Roots of Bitterness
1. Alien and Sedition Acts
2. Jay’s Treaty
3. Partisan newspapers

II. Unity vs Loyal Opposition
A. Washington’s "Farewell Address"

III. From Deference to Democracy


At first in the united states they had two political parties run by two prominent people:

-headed by Alexander Hamilton (the first secretary of treasury in washington's cabinet)
-strong central government
-broad interpretation of constitution ("implied powers")
-john adams also a leader, so was washington

Democratic Republicans or The "Republicans" (different from today)
-headed Thomas Jefferson -
-"That government is best that governs least"
-strict interpretation of constitution- beyond enumerated powers, they weren't to have any influence
-pro-agrarian (farmers, countryside)
-james madison also a leader

(Today's republican party started from Abraham Lincoln)

MEDIA CLIP: differences between federalist party and democratic republican party
-sharp divisions between leadership in federal government
-emerged in 1790s
-constitution creates a set of ambiguous structures allowing people and parties to interpret them differently
-Hamilton wanted to make a government that replicated european empires
-Jefferson was opposed to this
-Hamilton wanted to make a national bank
-Without a bank you need to wait for taxes to be collected
-With a bank, you can use funds immediately to fight wars, run government

In the old days,
1st place person was President
2nd place person was vice-president

(so then, leaders of opposite parties become president and vice-president)
This caused a lot of contention in the executive.
then they made:
Amendment 12, changed things so they are like today

"Venerate the Plough" - Farmer a noble citizen, Democratic Republican ideal

Sources of party bitterness
-Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798
--Naturalization Act (made it harder to become an american citizen)
--Alient Act (make it easy to kick out non-american citizens)
--Alien Enemies Act (made it easy to label non-americans as enemies)
--Sedition Act (against the law to write or say anything against government or governing party)

-2nd President was John Adams
-first act was Alien and Sedition Bills, 1798
-People were outraged against Adams uses of powers, to extend powers of government
-people spoke out against government but were locked up (violation of constitution)
-they were restricting freedom of speech and the press (unconstitutional)
-Jefferson made 3rd president (1800) (called a revolution)

-John Adams alien and seditions act (jailed americans for speaking out against government)
-Woodrow Wilson espionage act (jailed americans during WWI)
-Franklin D Roosevelt Executive Order 9966 (jailed japanese americans during WWII)
-some say George W Bush is also doing similar stuff with his anti-terror act

some leaders suspend Habeas Corpus
lincoln did it

2nd thing divided government into 2 parties:

Jay's Treaty 1795
-American weak, Britain strong
-it passed senate by the slim majority
-america agreed to humiliating terms
-people hated john jay for agreeing to a stupid treaty

3rd thing:
-Newspapers printing things along party lines
-and attacked the other parties

MEDIA CLIP: Newspapers
-A few newspapers wrote good things about Alexander Hamilton and his bank
-Thomas Jefferson hired a poet with Madison
-poet was to start a rival newspaper to criticize the Federalist party policies
-Federalist party
-launched personal attacks against jefferson,
-another wrote "top 20 things I hate about hamilton"
-Washington wrote both sides asking for ceasefire in war of words

Washington in his closing address
-laments the idea of ruling factions
-he didn't know it can be good to have an opposition to check the ruling party

One more principle:
-shift from old political system: deference (elite people in power)
-to new system: rule by the people

Not too many people voted in the early 1800s
start in 15% to 40% voting participation
it changed to 68% to 98%
-why? newspapers
-party loyalty
-emphasis on the common man

[see last few slides for pictures of people celebrating common man]

Oct 27, 2006: Lab


You can see your midterm in the Review Room next week
(Oct 30 - Nov 3) ONLY!!!
-Bring your student ID
-No reviews Next Week!

There was discussion about the course code at the
coursecompass site:
the code is pulsipher77171
the site is

Also there was confusion about large states ratifying
the constitution first or small states ratifying it first.

At the convention there was disagreement and in general
the small states comprised first and then the large
states compromised and then they all signed the constitution.
BUT! Then in order to legitimize the new constitution, each
representative had to go home to their state and have a vote
on whether to accept the constitution (to ratify the
constitution). You can see the order the states ratified the
constitution in the lecture slides or here

Court System

Chisholm vs Georgia 1793
-shows the weakness of the court system
-court system had only been operating 5 years under the new system
-it hadn't had a chance to do much yet
-basically between georgia and chisholm (a citizen of south carolina)
-supreme court has responsibility for any court case between a person and a state
-Alexander Chisolm is lawyer representing a client who has passed away
-Chisolm sues Georgia, georgia says we're sovereign, georgia decides not to show up

Chisolm wins, why?
-Georgia is NOT sovereign "as to the purposes of the union"
-The Supreme Court has jurisdiction over lawsuits between states and citizens of other states

-Georgia doesn't want to pay
-Georgia house of representatives that passes a bill ordering DEATH by hanging for any federal officer who tried to enforce the supreme court ruling (that chisolm won)
-11th Amendment is passed (by the states)
--Supreme Court's jurisdiction does not extend to cases between states and citizens of other states
--the state felt like the supreme court was interfering in state affairs

Case significance-
-supreme court is weak
-states resist the courts power (immensely)

Supreme court wants to be stronger

At the time they had two political parties:
Federalists - Republicans

Marbury vs Madison 1803
-Jefferson (republican party) wins election in november, but does not become president until march
-Jefferson is going to be inaugurated in march (made president)
-John Adams (federalist party) is the president up until march
-from november to march (called the lame duck period)
-Adams wants to stack the judiciary with federalist judges
-midnight appointments (done at the last second)

-John Marshall (federalist party) is John Adams Secretary of State (required to deliver the paperwork to appoint these judges)
-John Marshall is appointed to the supreme court so he doesn't have time to deliver the paperwork
-Jefferson decides he isn't going to have James Madison (new secretary of state) deliver the appointments (appoint federalist judges)
-Marbury is supposed to receive an appointment (not over supreme court) over a small district court
-he wants to be a judge. so he sues James Madison for not delivering the papers to appoint him to be a judge
-He sues Madison under the Judiciary Act of 1789
--He wanted a writ of mandamus (a writing of command)

Marbury wants the Supreme Court to issue a writ of mandamus to force the executive branch (madison) to hand over the paperwork so Marbury can become a judge
-Marshall is head of the supreme court, madison says I don't need to do anything, and the court is weak
-if he rules in favor of marbury, (federalist party) madison says he is going to ignore the power of the court (this shows the court is weak)
-if he rules in favor of madison, it shows he is giving in, (showing the court is weak)

He ruled that the writ of mandamus was unconstitutional
-that the supreme court does not have the power to order around members of the executive
-but he rules that marbury deserves the appointment
-by ruling a law as unconstitutional he creates a tool (judicial review) for the courts
-the court ends up stronger

judicial review
-the power of the supreme court to strike down laws as unconstitutional or constitutional

this is a common essay question for exams
"Is judicial review in the constitution?"
No, It is precedent (tradition) that Marshall established from the Marbury vs Madison case

A More Perfect Union

"A More Perfect Union"
This is just a movie about the convention from which came the constitution of the usa

If you haven't seen the movie this little summary won't do anything to help you, they said you can see it at the LRC in the library on campus.
USA desires of Britain- fair trade
USA owes Britain- 10 million pounds
Britain says you're not even a real country (John Adams in england)

James Madison tries to get washington to come to a convention because certain states said they'd only come if washington came.

George Washington (also called the indispensable man) (acted as the president at the constitutional convention (guy in charge) )

George washington voluntarily surrendered power after the war (as a general, he could have used the military to just take over the colonies/states)

Virginians meet together beforehand, and discuss the Virginia Plan

Conventions starts
Small Republic vs Large Republic
everyone thinks that small republics are the only way to go, to combat factions
Madison proposes that a large republic is the only way to combat a faction taking over

Representation by Population or Representation by State in Congress
Solved by Roger Sherman's suggestion: The Great Compromise
But... when there was deadlock, Ben Franklin suggested that the delegates pray

The economy of the Southern states would be destroyed if they abolish slavery
Many delegates are slave-owners themselves

Madison was one darn stubborn guy, not wanting to compromise

Rhode Island was never represented at the convention
New York was not eligible to vote on the final vote (due to have only one representative there at the end), but Alexander Hamilton (who represented NY) signed the Constitution anyway.

(extra)My wife tells me that:
John Adams was the 1st vice president
Alexander Hamilton was the 1st treasurer
George Washington was the 1st president
John Adams was the 1st vice-president
John Adams was the 2nd president
Thomas Jefferson was the 3rd president
James Madison was the 4th president

Ben Franklin (The inventor of the stove)

Oct 25, 2006

Rights and Ratification 

Day 2

I. The Bill of Rights
A. Madison and the Bill of Rights
1. The tyranny of the majority
2. Proposed veto over state legislation
B. The language of the Bill of Rights

II. How the Bill of Rights is applied
A. Controversial issues
B. Changing interpretations
C. Newly claimed rights

III. Rights and the growth of government

IV. Rights and Responsibilities: The individual and society


So because he wanted the constitution ratified, and the people wanted it he decided to support it.

James Madison gave in and decided to support a Bill of Rights. Originally he was opposed, later he thought it would be important to protect the rights of minorities

They said it is immoral for a minority to direct the majority (mob rule)

But there are certain rights that everyone should have that no majority should take away from minorities. Then the state majorities can't trample on minority's rights.

"Put simply, pure democracy is 2 coyotes and a sheep voting on whats for dinner"

Proposed veto over state legislation

- Madison's "Council of Revision"
- Rejected by convention, but eventually embodied in:
- presidential veto
- principle of judicial review

supreme court has the power of judicial review

the principle of judicial review was not important until 1803 in a case called "marbury vs madison"
(meaning that the supreme court was pretty weak until then)

3 principles in the amendments that aren't concrete: (the 3 oughts) (these relate to the bill of rights)
-Liberty of conscience
-Freedom of expression
-The right of privacy

How the Bill of Rights is actually applied

One aspect of the Bill of Rights has been in the courts recently:
"Amendment 5: No person shall be ... deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation."

MEDIA CLIP: "Imminent Domain" Ware, New Hampshire
The constitution allows someone the opportunity to seize private homes for public use: "Imminent Domain"
Public use: railroad, airport, roads
But some people are being asked to leave their homes for commercial projects

Changing interpretations of rights:
+From freedom of religion to freedom from religion
+From freedom from search and seizure to the general right to privacy
+Shifts in meaning of freedom of expression (speech) based on new technology (internet, instant messaging, etc)

Amendment 4: The Right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable search and seizures, shall not be violated

Amendment 1: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof...

The changes in our society have brought about newly claimed rights

MEDIA CLIP: John Kerry vs Bush
-rights... constitution,
-rights... rights... rights...

Newly claimed rights:
rights to reparation from slavery
patient's rights
right to die
right to fair wage
right to privacy
right to clean air
right to choose
right to gay marraige
right to education
right to adequate housing
right to health care
right not to be discriminated against based on (race,religion,gender,sexual orientation)

Then there is the american obesity rights

MEDIA CLIP: American obesity
-do fast food makers have to pay for americans getting fat?

-a man is fighting the obesity issue saying it is a person's own responsibility to decide what they eat

choice or responsibility
government's responsibility or the individual's responsibility

oaks: classic rights is a fusion of rights and responsibility
-we have been a rights focused country forgetting the responsibilities side of things

MEDIA CLIP: [hot coffee/mcdonalds story here]
-hot coffee from Mcdonalds burned her in her lap, she had to get skin grafts
-cyclist hit by a jeep when riding without lights is awarded 7 million

MEDIA CLIP: rights
-what happened to hard work, self-reliance, people cashing in with big cases
-people only care about rights, and not responsibilities anymore

MEDIA CLIP: shows students our age acting on the principle of responsibilities
-students doing community service
-more than 5000 students in universities are spending spring break doing community service
-Vanderbilt, students matching service opportunities with those willing to do service

Oct 23, 2006

Go watch: "A More Perfect Union"
-Wednesday and Thursday October 25th, 26th
--5:00pm, 7:30pm JSB Auditorium
-Thursday October 26th 6:45am in JSB
Auditorium (THIS WEEK)

grading on the multiple choice portion of the test
100-77 A
76 -69 B
68 -56 C
55 -46 D
below 45 E

[see the slides for the american heritage curve]

Rights and Ratification

Day 1

I. Barriers to ratification of the Constitution

A. Fears of centralized power
1. Dangers of monarchy and aristocracy
2. Potentially unlimited power of Congress
(the "necessary and proper" clause)
3. States' desires to retain sovereignty
4. Lack of a Bill of Rights

II. Structural Solutions

A. Federalism
B. Separation of Powers
C. Enumerated Powers

III. Ratification

A. The Promise of the Bill of Rights


James Madison: The Architext of the Constitution
-"Publius" -Penname, used in the federalist papers
-"Madison's political career rested on... hard working people could lead laxier people"

MEDIA CLIP: James Madison
- a young sickly boy who liked to read
-11 french, latin, greek
- he made friends with madison
-in 1780 he was elected to the 2nd continental congress
-madison arrived at the constitutional convention 11 days early
-he had been doing his homework and a lot of preparation
-virginia plan the framework for the constitution

constitution had to be ratified by 9/13 states

4 barriers to ratifying (agreeing to) the constitution [1][2][3][4]....

They had just fought against a tyrannical government, and they were fearful that forming a federal government would result in a tyrannical government that oppresses freedoms (etc).

John Adams proposed that they should say:
"His Highness, the President of the United States of America and Protector of their Liberties"
(but this was too much like the english way of things (aristocracy))
instead we use
"Mr. President"

MEDIA CLIP: President authorized the NSA to spy on citizens without warrants
-the program of spying on citizens (including wiretaps) people are arguing it is important
-The patriot act

People were worried because they thought they were just going to modify confederation not re-do the whole thing with a new document

Every state proposed their own constitution previous to making a complete USA constitution. Virginia's constitution said that there would be no salaries for elected people (governor, state legislature)

BUT, if they don't have a salary, they can be swayed with bribes.
OR, who can afford to have no salary? Rich people.

States were pretty jealous of their sovereignty

Lack of a bill of rights

Madison and Hamilton opposed to the idea of a bill of rights (at the beginning)
George Mason supported the idea of a bill of rights
George Mason refused to sign the constitution because it didn't have a bill of rights

Responding to fears of centralized power...

People were worrying that a large republic would tear itself apart with factions

MEDIA CLIP: "A More Perfect Union"
-small republic vs large republic
-can we have this big republic?
-Madison makes the argument that a larger republic can safeguard against tyrannous factions

Federalism: (shared sovereignty between the states and the national government)

Separation of Powers - (enforcing laws and making laws enforced by two different branches of government)
-this is spelled out in the massachussetts constitution of 1780 [see slides]

Enumerated Powers: (powers belong to people unless they are listed and given to the government)

Federalism, Separation of Powers, Enumerated Powers were emphasized in order to assure people not to be worried about having a national government

Each state had to ratify the constitution
-ratified vote 187 to 168

-ratified 89 to 79
[these were close]

Delaware, Dec. 7 1787 (first state to ratify the constitution)
[see slides for rest of the list]
Rhode Island, May 29, 1790 (last state to ratify the constitution)

One of the major issues people were holding out on was the bill of rights

Oct 20, 2006: Lab

Go watch: "A More Perfect Union"
-Wednesday and Thursday October 25th, 26th
--5:00pm, 7:30pm JSB Auditorium
-Thursday October 26th 6:45am in JSB


Madison in (drawing up the constitution) draws from Aristotle, Plato and other greek philosophers

Guards against Corruption?
--comes from plato
--Republican Motherhood- says that the mother would teach her children what it means to be a good citizen, virtuous etc.

--Aristotle: mixed government (separation of powers)- making sure that one person or group of people don't have all the power in governement

James Madison felt that the best check against corruption was: virtue.

"Power corrupts. Absolute power corrupts, absolutely."

The constitution has:
-checks and balances
-3 branches (separation of powers)
-structural devices

Congress is made up of: bicameral legislature
-Upper House- Senate
-Lower House- House of Representatives

The Senate was the 'upper house' because the senate was on the upstairs of the building.

House of Representatives
-Based on population (435 members today)
-"Hot" House- closer to the people
-term length 2 years (they have re-election every 2 years)
-responsible to the people

-2 per state (100)
-"Cold" House- farther removed from the people
-elected by state legislatures (state governments) (originally)
-term length 6 years (they have re-election every 6 years)
-responsible to the state

Presidential term (maximum term: elected twice)

[Structural Devices]
-Indirect elections
-You vote in an electoral college- they vote for president

Filters of consent (David Hume)
-the farther removed from the people an elected representatives is, the less responsible to the people they are

Electoral College
-There is a # of votes/state

[note from mark]
Okay I figured out the electoral college stuff. Each state is assigned a certain number of votes according to their population. Here is a list of electoral college votes per state. Utah has 5 electoral college votes, so that means if 51% of utah vote for the republican party and 49% vote for the democratic party, all of the 5 of utah's votes will be for the republican party. So then if a presidential candidate has over 270 electoral college votes, they have a majority and win the election. California has the most votes (55 electoral college votes). If you have questions post a comment below.
[end note]

Enumerated Powers
-Powers that the national government has are LISTED in the constitution
-All other powers are given to the people

[Separation of Powers]
-Executive (enforce laws)
-Legislative (create laws)
-Judicial (interpret laws)

Checks and Balances
-the way that the 3 branches interact with each other

--------------------[chart on page 111]--------------------
vs Exec
Overrides vetoes
Approve/deny treaties & appointments
Sets up agencies and programs

vs Judicial
Impeach and remove judges
Determines number of supreme court justices
Approves, rejects presidential judicial appointments

vs Legislature
Vetoes legislation
Suggest legislation, state of the union
Calls for special sessions
Negotiates treaties

vs Judicial
Nominates judges
Pardons for federal offenses

vs Legislature
Determines if a law is constitutional or not (Judicial Review)
Interprets laws and treaties

vs Executive
Declares acts of President constitutional or not (Judicial Review)
Interprets treaties
Reviews administrative agency cases
--------------------[end chart]--------------------

Oct 18, 2006

The American Constitution 

Day 2:

I. Creating the Constitution
A. A Remarkable group of men
B. Absent but influential
C. Purpose of the Constitution

II. The Need for Compromise
A. Representation
1. The Great Compromise
2. Federalism
B. Slavery
1. The Compromise on Slavery
2. Unfinished business

III. Protecting against abuses of power
A. A structural solution: Checks and balances

Announcements: Bring your copy of the constitution to the friday lab


The Founding Fathers were a good group of guys

MEDIA CLIP: Gordon B. Hinckley says
"founding fathers were people who prayed to God, wanted to do his will"
They were raised up for this purpose. Risked their lives to do good.
There has not been before or since so large a group of talented and dedicated men to compare with the Founding Fathers.

Some of the founding fathers:
John Adams
Samuel Adams
Ben Franklin
Thomas Jefferson
George Washingon

Architect of Constitution: James Madison

Purpose of Constitution:
- "to form a more perfect union"
- to establish justice
- ensure domestic tranquility
- provide for the commond defense
- promote the general welfare
- secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity
(source: the preamble)

They made the constitution (in Philadelphia) at the Convention

Two most important issures:

Virginia Plan
-Virginia Governor Edmund Randolph presented the Virginia Plan on behalf of James Madison
-strong central government necessary to make the USA succeed
-bicameral legislature (two houses)
-proportional representation (representation by population)

Rhode Island doesn't have a lot of population (small state)
Virginia has a large population (large state)
The small states didn't want proportional representation
The large states wanted proportional representation

The New Jersey Plan
-Proposed by William Paterson
-Single-house Congress, all states equally represented

Virgina Plan vs. New Jersey Plan
a debate.

MEDIA CLIP: from "a more perfect union"
-James Madison talking to George Washington at a table
-Washington: "We have achieved a great deal at this convention"
-Washington: "Now we need to compromise on the composition of the senate"
-Roger Sherman- may have the key in compromise

Compromise is difficult to do
-if they weren't able to bring in the small states the convention would fail

Roger Sherman- proposed:
-Bicameral Legislature (2 houses)
-House: proportional representation by population
-Senate: equal representation by states

"Federalism"- One of the great achievementss of the Convention
-Sovereignty divided between states and national government


Conflicting view on Slavery

Southern states have a hard time compromising on slavery

MEDIA CLIP: "Movie: 1776 A Musical"
-black slaves
-jefferson vs. [some guy]
-south carolina is a cherished way of life
-abolishing slavery destroys the economy of certain states/colonies that use black slaveries
-a lot of singing... about molasses, rum and slaves

The North said, we are being moral people trying to abolish slavery
The South said, it will destroy our economy, AND don't you (the north) have slaves too?

They had to make a compromise
"Bound to service" - means slave
Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person when doing representation by population

They said they will limit international slavery and quit it in 1808

Many people who disagreed about slavery, decided not to worry about it because they figured they'd eventually abolish it.

Checks and Balances-
MEDIA CLIP: Wells tried to force Helms (through extortion) to nominate Weld as an ambassador to Mexico
this is an example of checks and balances
the executive branch nominated an ambassador (weld)
the legislative branch did not approve the nomination (helms)

Another example:
Gay marraige
-some states not others
-should you get married in california and then force utah to recognize the marriage
-checks and balances
---amend the constitution
---supreme court

Oct 16, 2006


The American Constitution

Day 1

I. Problems with the Articles of Confederation
A. Consequences

II. States vs National power: States protective of own authority
A. Precedents:
1. United Colonies
2. Albany Plan of Union

III. Danger of Continuous Rebellion
A. Shays's Rebellion
B. Competing views of rebellion

IV. Creating the Constitution
A. Structure vs Virtue

MEDIA CLIP: The Miracle in Philadelphia
-the first federal government (articles of confederation) congress was too weak and was going to fall
-james madison, ben franklin
-states have more power, or federal government have more power
-roger sherman came up with a compromise 2 houses of congress
(house of representatives [representation by population], and us senate [representation 2 per state])
-they wrote a constitution for the USA
-purpose- secure blessings of liberty for the 'people'

Government laid out in 'articles of confederation' is a weak government
-it could not even tax its people
-no supreme court/judge system
Inefficient structure
-unanimity (everyone has to agree, not a 51% majority) required for amendments
State to State competition
-states competed with each other for trade and foreign policy

Results of national weakness
-newburgh conspiracy 1783
-shay's rebellion, 1786-87
--put down by a private rebellion

States vs National Goverment

MEDIA CLIP: Dispute in Little Rock, Arkansas
-not letting blacks into a school (state) vs allowing anyone in the school(federal)
-state govt calls in troops to enforce a policy which was against the federal government policy

The Whiskey Rebellion: 1794

MEDIA CLIP: whiskey rebellion, how did president george washington respond to it?
-this is different, you have representation
-they felt they were being unjustly oppressed with taxes

George washington says, you need to obey the laws

"You and I my dear friend..." [see slides for quote]
John Adams (2nd pres of USA)

Structure vs Virtue
-David Hume: Assume everyone acts for self-interest

"If men were angels, no government would be necessary"
James Madison

Classical Repubicanism:
-Virtuous leaders check corruption among the powerful

Lockean Liberalism:
-Individuals guard liberty, rights
-Potential negatives: Irresponsible individualism

MEDIA CLIP: Gilmore Girls
-"I found a dance partner" (24 hour dance marathon) get a nice trophy vs charity/virtue

Midterm Review: TERMS

Lists/Key Concepts/Important People/Important Events to know

[starting sept11]

The human predicament

Locke's 2nd treatise of govt
A State of nature- all men equal, with same rights to life, liberty
B Infringement on rights- voluntary agreement to form govt, a "social contract"
C Govts purpose- protect rights of citizens
D Govt exists by consent of the governed by which it gaims legitimacy
E If goct violates terms of contract (fails to protect people rights) it can be overthrown through revolution

Divine Right of Kings

4. Four alternative styles of government
A. Autocracy
B. Classical Republicanism
C. Libertarianism
D. Liberalism

founders tool kit  | ancient examples    | modern examples             
1. structure | monarchy, feudalism | 3 branches,checks
& balances
2. participation | athenian democ | represent democ
3. law | 10 commandments | rule of law
4. custom and trad.| july4th | precedent
5. moral sense | 10 commandments | slavery
6. founding myths |divine right of kings| columbus-ledbygod
7. leadership | chinese dynasty | president

Political economy

Christopher Columbus

John winthrop


The Glorious Revolution
Oliver Cromwell

Boston Massacre

5 Principles of the Rule of Law you need to know:
1. Generality: laws must apply to people in general, not discriminate against individuals or groups
2. Prospectivity: Laws cannot be ex post facto: they cannot apply to actions that took place before the law was enacted
3. Publicity: Laws must be well known and consistently enforced
4. Consent: Those subject to the laws must give their consent to them, either directly, or through elected representatives
5. Due Process: The legal process must be impartial, regular, and well established to ensure fairness

Rule of Law

Commonwealth Party (Whigs)
Court Party

Supply And Demand

Adam Smith

boston massacre

indentured servant

miracle of exchange

comparative advantage

declaration of independence

samuel adams

boston tea party

george washington

american revolution



[know basic english history 1600-1800]
[know basic american history 1600-1800]

[ending oct13]

Midterm Review: MEDIA CLIPS

(so far)
October 11th, 2006
I didn't make it to lecture

October 9th, 2006
MEDIA CLIP: Samuel Adams
-he felt everything else (in the future) coming from britain would be also taxed
-He called taxes britain put on american colonies: tyranny

Media CLIP: Americans felt they started to have voice in government, then parliament laid taxes on colonists but america had no voice in the taxes, so they started to think about breaking away

MEDIA CLIP: A declaration of independence,
-the figure of a man writing it...
-random people standing in a room, quoting parts of the independence
-random football players quoting other parts of the declaration of independence

October 4th, 2006
MEDIA CLIP: (india)
-2 systems, govt regulation is limited vs. excessive
-it takes a lot of paperwork in india to build factories
-Indians do well everywhere except india

MEDIA CLIP: the baby
-baby cries loud to send a signal (but only when it sees the parent)
-baby cries loud to receive attention

October 2th, 2006
MEDIA CLIP: Teacher standing in front of blackboard, students staring blankly...
(amh instructor says: I hope talking about economics is not as boring as these students think it is in this clip)

MEDIA CLIP: Global economy, chinese seamstress factories

MEDIA CLIP: two grandmas fighting over 1 photo, ad/commercial for a company offering 2 prints

MEDIA CLIP: Sam Brannan a mormon pioneer, came west, part of mormon battalion, got to california, discovered san francisco, his experience in San francisco
-Gold rush made him the richest person in california (Historical example)
-brannen sold shovels to the gold diggers,
-he purchased every pickaxe and metal pan in the area

Sept 27, 2006
5 Principles of the Rule of Law you need to know:
1. Generality
MEDIA CLIP: Malibu coastline, private beaches vs. public beaches

2. Prospectivity
MEDIA CLIP: Truck driver, paid penalties, then the penalties changed

3. Publicity
MEDIA CLIP: New York, should not put chains around trees, locked his bike to a tree

4. Consent
MEDIA CLIP: Iraqis voting, shi'ites, kurds, 14 milllion+ voters, 50-70% votership

5. Due Process
MEDIA CLIP: Chinese court system, police seize news camera, wang convicted of trying to overthrow the government by writing articles about democracy (15 years)

MEDIA CLIP: Thomas Moore (A man for all ages)
Henry the 8th, abolished the catholic church in england and changed to the anglican church
The Rule of Law: Generality, it has to protect everyone
Moore would not arrest a man just for being dangerous, he would have to do something first.

Sept 25, 2006
-charles stewart (Charles I)
-Oliver cromwell decided that charles would have to die
-jan 30 1649, charles
-birth of a republic (kinglesss state)
-pictures of beheaded charles
-"offered justice, and expected obedience"
-last words: "a subject and a king are clean 2 different things"

MEDIA CLIP: Popish Plot
-Charles suspected of having catholics in govt and making secret treaties with catholics
-plot largely based on rumor,
-charles II doesn't have an heir so his brother (James) would be the next king
-earl of shaftsbury says you can't be king
-then James REALLY DOES become king

MEDIA CLIP: James became king in 1685
-after 3 years, james was going to be a visible catholic king
-at least he had no son, his daughter Mary married William of orange
-then hames had a son

MEDIA CLIP: Prince William invited to invade england
-William needed troops against France
-600 vessels, 20,000 troops
-when james realized he was going to be invaded, he fled so he wouldn't be beheaded
-Parliament read a "Declaration of Rights" gave William conditional leadership
-called the 1688 glorious revolution (largely bloodless)

Sept 20, 2006
MEDIA CLIP: (from) adams family
-puritan - indians in a play
-first thanksgiving
-wednesday adams
-shows the clash between new and old traditions between thanksgiving
-and native american grievances

-Don't get cynical and recognize that there are millions who want it to be a city on a hill
-Ronald Regan- saw america as a special place, a beacon of freedom to the world

MEDIA CLIP: (from movie) Chariots of fire
-I'm going back to china-the missionary school said i was accepted
-I believe god made me fast, and made me for china

Sept 18, 2006
Media Clip: new world 1492 unimaginable riches "this is the flagship" (GE Commercial Finance) commercial

Media Clip: Columbus the villian

Media Clip: Motivation for establishment of virginia
Jamestown- business venture

Sept 13, 2006
year 419BC- athenian democracy- facing persian- ostracize- banish the person trying to overthrow the power

MEDIA CLIP: Monty Python and the Quest for the holy Grail
-how did you become king? i didn't vote for you
-you don't vote for kings


MEDIA CLIP: Is the USA now- The nanny state (too many laws)

Sept 11, 2006
September 11, 2001- Twin Towers

War of the Worlds->getting car jacked, crowds

from TV Show: Lost - Jack talks to the people 'every man for himself is not going to work'

from TV Show: Lost - (looting the aircraft for stuff they can use to survive)

Oct 13, 2006: Lab


-53 matching and multiple choice questions (worth 140 pts)
-5 identification questions, fill in the blanks, and
2 essays (worth 60 pts)
-page in length

use american heritage terms like:
"due process", "whig party", "commonwealth"

pick up old papers at the amh office in the swkt basement

Patriots vs Loyalists

Loyalists- pro british, anti-american
Patriots - pro american, anti-british


Loyalist viewpoint.....

Why do you support/oppose the Revolution?
*too hasty, too rash, tarring and feathering people left and right

What is your duty to King George? how do you feel towards king george?
*good guy, ordained of god
*We believe god command us to honor the king
*if you rebel you are rebelling against god
*lets pay taxes because the british troops protect us
*british taxes higher than american taxes

What is your motivation in taking your stand? What motivates the other side?

Does your side best represent virtue or preserve your interest?
*virtue, it represents the interests of all

What do you think is the greatest source of tyranny?
*people trying to abolish government for their own gain

[we had a debate about loyalists vs patriots]

% of american population in 1770s
loyalists- 20%
patriots - 80%

Oct 11, 2006


Breaking with Britain
Day 2

Washington and the American Revolution

I. Popular conceptions of Washington and the
truth behind the myth
A. Washington and piety
B. Washington as 'God’s elect'
C. Washington and the Rule of Law
D. Washington and virtue
E. Washington and heroism
F. Washington and preparedness

II. Washington and the American Revolution
A. Fortifying the Heights of Dorchester
B. Retreating from Long Island
C. Trenton and Princeton
D. Holding the Army together

III. And afterward . . .
A. The Newburgh Conspiracy
B. Following the pattern of Cincinnatus
C. Holding the Country together


no notes, sorry

summary: George Washington was good guy, everybody likes him.

I wasn't able to make it to class this day, so I can't post any notes. However if someone would like to email me their notes so I can post them, you can do so, by emailing: [i made it so you can't select it so I don't get spam]

If you don't want me to post your notes, and you just want to email them to me to help me study, I'd appreciate that too, thanks.

Thanks a lot.

Oct 9, 2006


American Heritage 100

I. The Colonial Status Quo
A. Self-government

II. Provoking American Resistance
A. Enforcement of Navigation Acts
B. Restricting American expansion
C. English legislation for the colonies

III. Colonial responses
A. Riot and resistance
B. Intercolonial cooperation

IV. Sources of American resistance
A. History
1. The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
2. Puritan tradition: God’s elect
B. Culture
1. The Commonwealth tradition
2. Classical tradition of resistance to tyranny
C. Identity
1. Religious: Great Awakening
2. Military: French and Indian War
3. Economic: The American market

IV. Declaration of Independence
A. Resolution of grievances
1. The rights of Englishmen
2. Representation


1st midterm coming up next week

Read a selection of documents about the Loyalists in the American Revolution
"This is on blackboard under course documents"


Breaking with Britain

Why did many Americans think Britain was tyrannical (abusing/misusing governing power)?

MEDIA CLIP: Samuel Adams
-he felt everything else (in the future) coming from britain would be also taxed

He called taxes britain put on american colonies: tyranny

Locke's 2nd treatise of government
1. man exists in a state of nature
2. people voluntarily agree to be governed via social contract/compact
3. government's purposes- protect citizens
4. government gains legitimacy through consent of the people
5. if government violate social contract/compact, people can rebel and get rid of government

What made Americans want to Rebel ()
1. Enforcement of Navigation Acts
- a violate of the rule of law, publicity
2. More bureaucracy (expanding government means more government officials)
- they paid local officials
3. Restricting American Expansion in 1763 (end of the french & indian war)
- british officials making a line colonists could not cross
4. A series of new laws passed in british parliament, on the american colonists
Sugar Act, 1764
Stamp Act, 1765
Declaratory Act, 1766
Townshend Revenue Acts, 1767
Tea Act, 1773

These taxes happened for a couple reasons
-they could afford them (standard of living in america, higher than britian)

Colonists were in separate colonies (like separate countries)
but they started to unite against britain, to avoid taxation
increase inter-colony communication
saying things like, lets stop buying tea, so britain stops making money off of us.

Boston Tea Party
, 1774
-boston people took tea and dumped it into the water from a ship in boston harbor
-90,000 lbs of tea were destroyed

Coercive Acts, 1774 (The Intolerable Acts)
-Boston Port Bill -shut down the port
-Massachusetts Government Act
-Administration of Justice Act
-Quartered Act
-Quebec Act

Media CLIP: Americans felt they started to have voice in government, then parliament laid taxes on colonists but america had no voice in the taxes, so they started to think about breaking away

Samuel Adams
-taxation without representation
-he led the resistance

History influenced the rebellion against england
-The English Civil War
-The Glorious Revolution
-The Puritan Tradition
--God's Elect

-Americans bought more books than all of England at the time
-books about freedom and commonwealth

Classical Tradition
-rome resisted the tyranny of caesar

"You should obey you leaders as long as they are just and look out for the welfare of their subjects, if not the people have an obligation and duty to rise up and overthrow their government..."
just means justice

Rebellion against tyrants is obedience to god

In order to rebel against britain you need unification of colonies against britain:
-french and indian war
-the great awakening (?)
-the revolutionary war
-unifying person: George Washington

Declaration of Independence 1776
-war started april 1776 (lexington massachussetts)

The didn't want to fight/war against england, they wanted to resolve the points of disafreement
-colonists thought they were englishmen and they wanted the 'rights' of the englishmen
-rights of englishmen:
--trial by a jury of peers
--taxation without consent
--representation (rule of law: consent) colonists wanted a voice in parliament

Parliament thought they because they were dependent (like children) on the mother country, then they could not govern themselves.

MEDIA CLIP: A declaration of independence,
-the figure of a man writing it...
-random people standing in a room, quoting parts of the independence
-random football players quoting other parts of the declaration of independence

Oct 6, 2006: Lab


Midterm (test) #1 October 16th-19th
-Monday and Tuesday are FREE Days!
-Wednesday 18th $5 late fee
-Thursday 19th $7 late fee (start taking it by 11am)

Midterm (test/exam)
-multiple choice
-short answer

Reviews in the review room (13th of october)


Supply and demand for ticket prices to a concert

Demand (buyer)
150 | | \
100 | | 50 |--------| | | \
25 | | | | +--------|--------------- Quantity

Supply (seller)
| /
| /
| /
| /
| /
| /
| /
+----------------------- Quantity

Supply and Demand (together)
$ (S) (D)
150 | \ /
| \ /
100 | \ /
| \ /
50 |-------/| | / | \
25 | / | | / | +--------|--------------- Quantity

where supply and demand lines meet is the price and quantity of equilibrium

Law of Demand: as price RISES, people buy LESS
Law of Supply: as price RISES, suppliers want to supply MORE

If price is too high, there will be a surplus because less people want to buy it.
If price is too low, buyers will want to buy more than the suppliers want to supply (due to scarcity)

Price meets at equilibrium

Slavery example
 $8 | \             /(S)
| \ /
$6 | \ /
| \ /
$4 |-------/| | / | \
$2 | / | | / | \(D)
+----------------------- Quantity
20 40 60 80 100

with increased demand
(D) shifts to right, so equilibrium price increases
 $8 |\   \          /(S)
| \ ->\ /
$6 | \ \ /
| \ / \
$4 | /\ | / \-> \
$2 | / \ | / \ \(D)
+----------------------- Quantity
20 40 60 80 100

with increased supply (of slaves)
(S) shifts to right, so equilibrium price decreases
 $8 |    \          /   /(S)
| \ / /
$6 | \ / ->/
| /\ /
$4 | / / | / / \
$2 | / ->/ | / / \(D)
+----------------------- Quantity
20 40 60 80 100

Opportunity Cost
- The best foregone alternative
- Opportunity cost for attending lab?
- Opportunity cost of NOT attending lab?


priority | activity
# |
3 | Attend Lab
2 | Work/Study
1 | Sleep
4 | Testing center

opportunity cost is the next best thing
If I sleep, I am giving up work/study


Moses can produce  Becky can produce/day
----- -----
3 cell phones 1 cell phone
6 keys 4 keys

if becky makes 1 cell phone she gives up the opportunity to make 4 keys
if becky makes 4 keys she gives up the opportunity to make 1 cell phone

O.C. of keys = 1 cell
4 key
OC of cell phone = 4 keys
OC of making 1 key = 1/4 cells

OC of cell = 2 keys
OC of key = 1/2 cell

Comparative advantage (in terms of opportunity cost)
Becki has cheapest OC in making keys (OC is 1/4 cell)
Moses has cheapest OC in making cell phones (OC is 2 keys)

Miracle of exchange:
Specialize in whatever you have a comparative advantage in
Comparative Advantage: A product you can produce at the lowest opportunity cost

Key concepts from today:
* Supply and Demand curves
* Comparative advantage
* Opportunity cost
* Miracle of exchange

Oct 4, 2006


I. Competition
C. Equilibrium and price
D. Profit and loss as economic signal

II. The impact of supply and demand on labor in early America
A. Demand: "Land cheap, labor dear"
B. Indentured servitude vs slavery

III. Role of government in a market economy
A. Supply money
B. Improve transportation
C. Prevent fraud
D. Resolve conflicts (courts)
E. Define property rights
F. Provide environment that encourages exchange, innovation

IV. Ongoing tension between govt. regulation and free trade


Boeing (a company) want to build some new planes, and they posted the list of all the supplies they needed to build a plane on the internet. Using this list, companies (boeing's suppliers) can bid to fill Boeing's orders. They called it a reverse auction. They bid until the price arrives at an equilibrium. This brought the price way down because more companies were able to bid.

Example: (of supply and demand)
Lets do an auction in our classroom. I am going to auction off 'krispy cream donuts'.
Start the bidding at $5... then to $25 dollars (still people standing up)

One buyer, one seller

Labor as an economic problem
-in north america, labor was in short supply
-so they came up with "Indentured servitude"
-people brought african slaves and sold them into the americas

Indentured servitude
-this is where people can't afford to come to america, so a usa business/farm pays there way to cross the atlantic ocean, but they work for the farm/business for 7 years or so, but then they go free, while working they are called an indentured servant

16th century = 1500s
17th century = 1600s
18th century = 1700s
19th century = 1800s

1600s In Britain, the 'enclosure' movement started in the 16th century
-peasants lived on a lord's land in the feudal system
-peasants give the lord their crops
-lord's decided to push peasants off the land, and build fences for sheep
-peasants went to the city looking for jobs (the wandering poor)
-they also turned to crime, because they couldn't get jobs
-'dear' -expensive

Virginia in 17th century (1600s)
-they had a surplus of land (indians died due to diseases)
-they had a scarcity of people to labor
-crop- they started growing tobacco a real cash crop

Problem: Cost of labor
-Slave or indentured Servant
-Slaves cost more than indentured Servants

Virginia founded in 1607
-from 1607-1610, 60% of the people (colonists) died called the "Starving Time"
-65%-80% mortality (early death) before 1624
-Jamestown, Virginia was built on a swamp (easy to get diseases and die)
-so many people died, so it was bad place to build a settlement
-before 1650, 40% of indentured servants died before the end of their term (often 7 years)

It became cheaper in the 1600s to have indentured servants. So why in the 1700s did there get to be so many slaves.

by the 1700s (near the time of the american founding),
supply of indentured servants became scarce because:
-1666 london fire killed a lot of londoners
-black plague killed many in europe
-people heard that indentured servants were dying

by the 1700s (near the time of the american founding),
-mortality greatly improved (people stopped dying early soo much)
-wealthy people took all of the good and safe land
-so indentured servants less likely to want to come to the 'new world'
-supply of indentured servants less in the 1700s

Williamsburg became new capital of virginia
-people died less, they drank cider (water less polluted)
-water polluted: because they'd throw their waste in the ground, then dig a well and drink polluted water

now by 1700s a slave is a better investment,
-mortality improved (slaves don't die as soon)
1662: Virginia Law says child is a slave if the mother is slave
...(and other laws, see slides)
1680: 50,000 whites 3,000 slaves
1760: 180,000 whites 120,000 slaves

market economies have less government intervention, but they are still needed:

Role of a government in a market economy
-to supply money (barter system is bad)
-transportation, reliable roads, trains, plane systems etc.
[example: a family in kenya
road quality in kenya is bad, just bumping everywhere, it was painful to drive
bad roads discourage business]
-a good legal system (rule of law):
--prevent fraud
--resolve conflicts (court system)
--define property rights
--provide an environment that encourages exchange, innovation, etc.

also, note USA has copyright protection for musicians, filmmakers

MEDIA CLIP: (india)
-2 systems, govt regulation is limited vs. excessive
-it takes a lot of paperwork in india to build factories
-Indians do well everywhere except india

Profit and loss as economic signals
-when you have a loss it sends a signal to the factories to decrease production
-when you have a profit it sends a signal to the factories to increase production

MEDIA CLIP: the baby
-baby cries loud to send a signal (but only when it sees the parent)
-baby cries loud to receive attention

Oct 2, 2006

American Heritage 100

Economics and the Founding I

I. Mercantilism (English System, 1500-1800)
A. Government should regulate the economy to increase the
revenue of the crown
1. Colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country
B. Method: Navigation Acts
1. Trade must be carried in English ships
2. Enumerated goods
C. Wealth = the amount of gold or silver in a nation's
II. Market system (capitalism) (Adam Smith, Wealth of
Nations, 1776)
A. Govt. should keep hands off (laissez-faire)
B. Interest vs. Benevolence
C. Wealth - the yearly production and consumption of a
country (per capita income)
III. How an economy operates:
A. Exchange
1. Simple exchange (barter)
2. Money
a. Negates need for "coincidence of wants"
3. Specialization
a. Allows expansion of market
B. Competition
1. Interest of buyer and seller conflict; competition
curbs interest
2. Supply and Demand
3. Equilibrium price
4. Profit and loss as economic signals

Day 1

MEDIA CLIP: Teacher standing in front of blackboard, students staring blankly...

Mercantilism: english system 1500-1800
-Theory- government control the economy for its own good
-Method- Navigation Acts
-Definition of Wealth- the amount of gold or silver in the country's treasury

Navigation Acts:
-Trade must be carried of english ships
-enumerated goods were required to ship to England and pay duties before going to another port.
--Dye stuffs (ie, indigo)

1678- '?' said that they were not bound by the navigation acts because they did not consent to them.

Capitalism vs Mercantilism
Adam Smith -- George III

Adam smith proposed an alternative to mercantilism

Market System - government should keep its hands out of the economy- don't interfere
-allow consumers to excercise their self-interest
-profits and losses regulate the market- the invisible hand
-New definition of wealth- the annual amount of production and consumption (income per capita)

Adam Smith put economic sovereignty in the hands of consumers like John Locke put political sovereignty in the hands of the people

Market economy operates:

simple exchange, 2 parties have things that the other wants so they swap (barter)

barter doesn't always work because you don't always have a coincidence of wants

Money negates the need for a coincidence of wants
items used for money: seashells,tea,cocoa beans,cigarettes,salt

self-interest is the most important factor operating a market economy

Specializiation- division of labor
-allows expansion of the market
-specialize in making pins- an example adam smith used

MEDIA CLIP: Global economy, chinese seamstress factories

Friedman in his book, talks about how it is important to specialize.
However in a global economy, you need to re-specialize to remain competitive.
If you have a US factory to make cheap things, you need to re-specialize and produce more expensive products in a more niche market. (like the art pencils, vs. #2 pencils example she talked about in class)

- buyer wants the cheapest price, seller wants the most expensive price,
- competition mediates these prices with supply and demand

Supply and demand
-a lot of an item (surplus), prices drop
-a few of an item (scarcity), prices increase

MEDIA CLIP: two grandmas fighting over 1 photo, ad/commercial for a company offering 2 prints

Historical example-
MEDIA CLIP: Sam Brannen a mormon pioneer, came west, part of mormon battalion, got to california, discovered san francisco, his experience in San francisco
-Gold rush made him the richest person in california
-brannen sold shovels to the gold diggers,
-he purchased every pickaxe and metal pan in the area

vhs tapes-10 video tapes/$

Gas overpriced in Utah, 35c/40c kept prices prompted up in the USA
investigation started, but the prices dropped, (price-fixing?) gas prices high because lots of people drive SUVs

price/gram of meteorites ($500,000/1 gram)
people selling meteorites on ebay, then many people sold meteorites so now the price is $1000/1 gram

Health Care- expensive