American Heritage 100 :: Fall 2006 [/\\] BYU

my student notes and resources from amh 100 at byu. i can make mistakes, so corrections are welcome.

use 'search this blog' above to search through my notes.

as an international student, i don't know much about american heritage either.

Final: my Study guide

I didn't get an official study guide. If there is one, could someone post it on here as a comment.

Also I elaborate on just about every point in my notes. I ordered the following topic list by date from most recent to least recent. Also this only has material since the 2nd exam.

Virtue vs Structure


With great freedom comes great good as well as great evil.

Dell theory of conflict prevention.

offshoring- outsourcing

understand 3 types of justice:
Criminal Justice
Social Justice
Economic Justice

[i will expand on them]

Criminal Justice:
Aspects of Criminal Justice in the Founding
-Declaration of Independence
-Bill of Rights

Aspects of Criminal Justice in the Founding
.Declaration of Independence
-*king george "has obstructed justice by refusing his assent to laws establishing judiciary powers"
---he prevent laws coming that would make criminals pay, by changing laws etc.
--"depriving us of ... trial by jury"
--"transporting us beyond seas and trying us for pretended offenses"
---the accused were shipped to england to be tried

-Article 1, Section 8 and 9:
-*They have abilities to make laws as to what is crime
-*Congress forbids the suspension of Habeas Corpus
---Habeas Corpus- a person can't be held in jail (after being arrested) for a long time without a trial
-*No ex post facto laws
-*No bills of Attainder
---bill of Attainder- a written document that singles out an individual or group of individuals and punishes them without trial
---means people being punished immediately without a fair trial
---trial by jury in state which crime has been committed

.Bill of Rights (Amendments 4-8)
-*4 Prohibits search and seizure without warrant and probably cause
-*5 Indictment of a grand jury
---Double jeopardy prohibited
---Forced self-incrimination
---Right to due process
-*6 Right to a speedy and public trial
---Impartial Jury
---Right to be informed of crime
---Right to be contronted by the witnesses against him
---Right to have power to compel witness in his defense
---Right to have legal counsel
-*7 Right to trial by jury (for cases that exceed $20)
-*8 Prohibites excessive bail, fines, or cruel and unusual punishment

Modern Criminal Justice
Gideon v. Wainwright
-Gideon is poor, 1963, accused of stealing food from pool hall vending machine
-no evidence against gideon, wainwright sues him
-gideon too poor to hire a lawyer
--judge: right to lawyer only applies in federal cases
--gideon decides to defend himself, and he loses
--in jail: he studies law
--he learns his right to a lawyer
---Appealed to the Supreme Court (means a new trial)
----6th amendment rights violated
----denied due process
--supreme court overturns his conviction
--Supreme Court establishes the right to a lawyer in state AND federal cases
--It shifts the justice system to say the federal courts have more power than state courts

Miranda v. Arizona 1966
-miranda a guy accused of rape, kidnapping, robbery
-pressured until confessed to the crime
-case overturned by supreme court
--violated of constitution's ban on self-incrimination
-they try him again,
-retried without confession... still guilty
-aside: miranda killed in a bar fight, assailant arrested, read his "miranda warning"
-Establishes Miranda Rights, applies to all people, regardless of who you are
-not forced to testify against themselves

Social Justice
Equality of Opportunity vs Equality of Result
-Approaches to Equality of Opportunity
--13th, 14th, 15th amendments
--said former slaves are citizens
--door of opportunity was opened
--yet in many cases these rights were not secured
---could not vote, certain motels, certain restaurants
-Instead of just opening doors of opportunities (which doesn't always work) we have to ensure equality of result

Equality of result: FDR- New Deal
-Curb farm overproduction through crop rotation, destruction of surpluses to force up prices
-allow industries to form cartels(monopolies), set prices at profitable levels
-guarantee workers a living wage
-guarantee the unemployed jobs or provide welfare provided. Pensions for aged and sick.
-regulate advertisement, business, politics, public utilities, Wall Street
-provide regional development for poverty-ridden sectors (TVA).

Equality of opportunity- opening a door
-example: women could vote after 1920, the door was opened for them (didn't equalize result but it opened the door)

Affirmative Action

Political Correctness

Economic Justice:
-rich should pay more money than the poor (they wanted to do more than flat tax)
-Income Tax -> changed to progressive income tax
-Progressive Income Tax- means the rich pay a higher percentage of tax than the poor

Economic Justice: Free Market vs. Government Intervention

Free market Benefits
-creation of new jobs
--economic growth

Free market Costs
-ignores injustice
-rewards productivity, not morality

Govt Intervention Benefits
-can address injustice or suffering indirectly
-protection from unfair competition
-subsidizes valuable but unprofitable products/jobs

Govt Intervention Costs
-creates dependency
-does not reward productivity > economic decline

[the rest of this stuff I won't expand on, check out my nodes for details]


Jim Crow Laws
"Separate but equal" doctrine established by Plessy v Ferguson, 1896

-Resistance to African American voting
--literacy test
--poll taxes

know plessy v ferguson
know emmitt till
know rosa parks
know dr martin luther king jr
understand how martin luther king's approach differed from black panthers approach

know Brown v Board of Education of Topeka

Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., March on Washington, 1963

Government Action:
Civil Rights Act, 1964
Voting Rights Act, 1965

be able to explain why:
cold war was the 'bad war' for the usa
WWII was the 'good war' for the usa

understand these issues
Isolationism vs Moral Leadership
Freedom vs Tyranny
Democracy vs Totalitarianism
Capitalism vs. Communism
Imperialism vs Police Power

know manifest destiny

monroe doctrine

FDR's 4 freedoms:
Freedom of Speech
Freedom to Worship
Freedom from want [see slides]
Freedom from Fear

understand FDR's new deal,

understand keynesian economics

understand brain trust

New Deal Economic Regulations
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation(FDIC)
Fair Labor Standards Act
Social Security

Free-market vs Government intervention

know the significance of the depression
and its causes

political machines

the gilded age

progressive impulse:
populism, direction, leaders, manifestation
progressivism, direction, leaders, manifestation

Economic Reforms:
Sherman anti-trust act, 1890
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Federal Reserve System ("the Fed")
Food and Drug Administration(FDA)
State-level regulations

know amendments 16 and 17

understand 'externalities'

Market Weaknesses in a Changing World
-Monopoly Power
-Economic Instability
-Economic Injustice


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