American Heritage 100 :: Fall 2006 [/\\] BYU

my student notes and resources from amh 100 at byu. i can make mistakes, so corrections are welcome.

use 'search this blog' above to search through my notes.

as an international student, i don't know much about american heritage either.

Nov 8, 2006

A House Divided 
Day 2

I. Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1865

II. Reconstruction, 1865-1877
A. Lincoln's Plan
1. Tools for Reconstruction
B. Finishing the Founding
1. Slavery
2. Federalism
C. Reconstruction after Lincoln:
Johnson vs. Radial Republicans

III. Southern Resistance to Reconstruction
A. Black Codes
B. The KKK
C. "Redemption"


Abraham Lincoln 6 foot 4 inches tall
-raised in a Log Cabin
-ran against Stephen A Douglas for senate and lost
-later, ran against Stephen A Douglas for presidency and won

Mary Todd Lincoln (Abraham's wife)
Robert Todd Lincoln was their only son that lived to maturity
-their 3 other children died early
-this explains Lincoln's somber tone throughout his presidency
-opposed to slavery in the usa

One of his generals later ran against him for presidency (2nd one)
-George A. McClellan, a democrat
-lincoln one

[see slides for political cartoon portraying mcclellan's 'moderate view']
[this view was actually lincoln's view- union above all else]

Lincoln was assassinated

AUDIO CLIP: Lincoln speech in philadelphia hall [Feb 22, 1861]
-some say my role is to draw peace into this distracted country
-those who fought for the declaration of independence fought for freedom
-what principle or ideal did they fight for? freedom and liberty for all men
-the government will only use force if force is used against it

quite a moving speech, mentions that he may end up giving his life for the cause
emphasized the declaration of independence

Lincoln gave an emancipation proclamation (giving freedom to slaves)
[Anonymous blog reader says:
The Emancipation Proclamation did not free all those who were enslaved. If you actually read the document, you will see that it only intended to free those held captive in the Confederacy -- a policy the United States government could not (and did not) enforce.]
[thanks Anonymous!]

MEDIA CLIP: A meeting held before the end of the civil war,
asking slave leader what he envisioned would happen during the aftermath of the war
-Frasier 'what did the war mean?'
- 'what the presence of black troops in the army meant?' etc

:Freedom promised by the emancipation proclamation takes us from the yoke of bondage
-and then enjoy the fruits of our own labor
-we will need our own land to maintain ourselves
-we want to be placed on land, and to work on the land until we can buy
-you should protect our rights, and then leave us to be citizens

Locke- the right to life, liberty of property
-also means the right to enjoy the fruits of your property

Reconstruction 1865-1877
-putting the south and the north back together
-abraham wasn't around to put it back together

Lincoln- I hope there will be no bloody work after the war is over

Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan-
-once the south agreed to the emancipation proclamation
-10 percent plan: when 10% of those voting in the 1860 election signed an oath of allegiance to the US and its laws
-full pardon and restoration of property
-purpose: get states back into the Union (USA) quickly, and keep federal intervention in south to a minimum

the south was bitter about the loss of the civil war
the south (pro-slavery, anti-lincoln, called confederacy, rebel)
the north (yankees, abolitionist, called the union, Abraham Lincoln)

MEDIA CLIP: about the bitterness of the south
-the north (winners) rang the bells of churchs in towns
-some people of the south shot themselves after the surrender
-rather die than live in a country with the north (yankees)

Lincoln also cared about how to bring the slaves into full citizenship in the new USA
-redistribution of land

General Sherman made Special Field Order #15
-every slave would get 40 acres of land and a mule
-this happened in a small basis, kind of an experiment

Freedman's Bureau, March 1865 (2nd attempt to try to integrate former slaves into country)
-Food, clothing, fuel provided to freedmen (former slaves)
-supervision of abandoned lands
-supervised provision for lease of lands, with option to buy

former laws against teaching slaves to read

Amendments about Slavery and Federalism
13th amendment 1865 (ratified 1865)- banned slavery (
14th amendment 1866 (ratified 1868)- no state shall enforce any law to curb rights of other citizens
or national laws that protect rights cannot be violated or changed by states laws
15th amendment 1870 (ratified 1870)- former slaves get the right to vote

South Carolina- one of few places with a Black Majority
-many african americans elected to legislature right away

Reconstruction after Lincoln:
Andrew Johnson (vice-president) became president after lincoln was killed
-born in a border state near the south, ran with lincoln to bring in the
-southern states

Johnson vs Radical Republicans
-Johnson wanted to punish southern aristocracy (traitors)
-favored a 50% plan no 10% (as above)
-Johnson was opposed to full political rights for freedman
-South resisted reconstruction

South fought reconstruction Black Codes
-restricted from working other than farming
-vagrancy (wandering around with nowhere to go) by involuntary labor, fines
-black/white intermarriage banned
-blacks barred from juries

South resisted through the KKK or Klu Klux Klan
-white supremesist organization
-KKK resisted through violence

MEDIA CLIP: From "O Brother Where Art Thou" movie
-Watching a meeting of the KKK
-Dressed in white robes,
-Protecting 'culture and heritage and religion and wives'
-like to hang/kill 100s of black people, to prevent transition
-KKK pretended to appeal to good values but achieved it by violence

-not everyone in south completely opposed to transition
-wanted peaceful transition that lincoln called for
-a white man (Robert E. Lee) kneels next to the black man in church
-the white man made a public statement

Virtue and structure
virtue- some people started accepting black people as citizens
structure- new laws passed for equality for black people

Redemption completed by 1877
-the end of reconstruction
-as soon as the reconstruction ended, they stopped federal intervention, and pulled troops out of the south
-the south went back to the old ways where they discriminated against blacks and had no federal troops to prevent them

-Reconstruction helped create autonomous black family
-fostered network of religious and social institutions
-educational progress
-laid foundation for future civil rights action

Full citizenship for black people didn't happen until the civil rights movement almost 100 years later


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